Wikipedia thesis: Book of Revelation’s “Babylon” probably refers to Jerusalem.

Many Biblical scholars[46] and theologians point out that although Rome was the prevailing pagan power in the 1st century when the Book of Revelation was written, the symbolism of the whore of Babylon refers not to an invading infidel of foreign power, but to an apostate false queen, a former “bride” who has been unfaithful and who, even though she has been divorced and cast out because of unfaithfulness, continues to falsely claim to be the “queen” of the spiritual realm.[47][48][49] This symbolism did not fit the case of Rome at the time. Proponents of this view suggest that the “seven mountains” in Rev 17:9 are the seven hills on which Jerusalem stands and the “fall of Babylon” in Rev 18 is the fall and destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE[50]

Several Old Testament prophets referred to Jerusalem as being a spiritual harlot and a mother of such harlotry (Isaiah 1:21; Jeremiah 2:20; Jeremiah 3:1-11; Ezekiel 16:1-43; Ezekiel 23, Galatians 4:25).Some of the these Old Testament prophecies as well as the warnings in the New Testament concerning Jerusalem are in fact very close to the text concerning Babylon in Revelation, suggesting that John may well have actually been citing those prophecies in his description of Babylon.[51]

For example, in Matthew 23:34-37 and Luke 11:47-51, Jesus himself assigned all of the bloodguilt for the killing of the prophets and of the saints (of all time) to the Pharisees of Jerusalem, and, in Revelation 17:6 and 18:20,24, almost identical phrasing is used in charging that very same bloodguilt to Babylon. This is also bolstered by Jesus’ statement that “it’s not possible for a prophet to be killed outside of Jerusalem.” (Luke 13:33).[52]

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